Bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma (BA) is a complex medical, social and economic problem. Up to 10% of the world’s population suffer from different types of asthma. Asthma develops in childhood (50%) and in adults under 40 years of age. The prevalence and severity of asthma are influenced by genetic factors, climate, environmental conditions, diet, endocrine disorders, immunodeficiency disorders. Some patients with bronchial asthma are helped by this drug:

What is bronchial asthma

According to the WHO definition, bronchial asthma is a polyetiological chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airways. It is accompanied by periodic shortness of breath, attacks of suffocation. It is noted stuffiness in the chest, night or morning cough with wheezing rales. These manifestations are associated with obstruction (narrowing) of the lumen of the bronchial tree.

Diagnosis and examination in bronchial asthma

Diagnosis and examination in bronchial asthma is carried out by hardware methods, laboratory and instrumental studies.
Fluoroscopy and radiography in the early stages of the disease are uninformative. When emphysema joins, radiographs show increased airiness of lung tissue.

For a detailed study of the functional capacity of the lungs are used:

X-ray imaging. The method is based on graphic registration of lung movements during breathing. Changes on the kymogram allow to judge about disorders of external respiration.
Electrokymography – assesses the ventilatory function of the lungs.
X-ray cinematography – cinematography of X-ray images of the lungs
Peak flowmetry – determines peak expiratory velocity (decreases with asthma).
Spirometry measures vital capacity and exhalation rate.
Pneumotachography records the volumes of inhaled and exhaled air in forced mode, which enables detection of bronchial obstruction.
Bronchoscopy is performed to rule out other causes of bronchial obstruction (foreign body, tumor), and to determine the cellular composition of fluid obtained after bronchial lavage.

Bronchial asthma tests

Bronchial asthma tests are both general clinical and specific to confirm the diagnosis.

General clinical tests:

General blood tests: eosinophilia is characteristic of asthma, in the infection-dependent variant – accelerated sedimentation rate, leukocytosis.
Blood chemistry: with asthma there is CRP, increased fractions of alpha and gamma-globulin, increased activity of acid phosphotase.
General analysis of urine
Stool for helminths and protozoa.

Special tests:

Bronchial sputum microscopy: eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils, Charcot-Leiden crystals, Kurshman spirals are found in AD patients.
Bacteriological analysis of sputum for pathogenic microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics.
Determination of serum antibodies to infectious agents (chlamydiae, fungi and others)
Detection of viral antigens in the nasopharyngeal mucosa by ELISA method.
Determination of steroid hormone content in blood and urine.